Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement 1954

I talked about India`s hostility to the Pakistani alliance with the United States. It also used direct pressure to prevent Pakistan from joining it. In August 1953, after months of bilateral negotiations, Mr. Nehru and the then Prime Minister of Pakistan, Mohammad Ali, issued a joint communiqué on Kashmir. They agreed, among other things, on this point: “They firmly believed that this [Kashmir conflict] should be resolved according to the wishes of the inhabitants of that state. The most practical way to identify people`s wishes was a fair and impartial referendum. In addition, it was decided to appoint the plebiscite administrator by the end of April 1954. He will then make proposals which, in his view, are appropriate to prepare a fair and impartial plebiscite throughout the state, and will take other measures that may be deemed necessary for this purpose. We support the sustainability of the current Afghan government through technical assistance and loans from the Export-Import Bank. Export-Import Bank recently agreed to extend a new $18.5 million development loan to Afghanistan. The impact of Indian thorium nitrate exports to communist bloc countries on U.S. economic assistance to India has been of considerable force in getting India to reach an agreement on the elimination of its production of thorium nitrate and other materials such as strategic micas.

We have had a policy of close consultation with the Indian government. Ambassador Allen has access to Nehru and has explained U.S. policy on a number of issues, including U.S. military aid to Pakistan, U.S. aid to the French in Indochina, non-recognition of Communist China by the United States, etc. Similarly, India`s ambassador to Washington was briefed from time to time by State Department officials, including the minister. Yet Pakistan has come under intense criticism in India by joining these purely defensive alliances. India accused “Pakistan of putting the Cold War in the subcontinent.” But the very purpose of this Indian outcry has become more evident over time, especially when Pakistan signed the bilateral Co-elaboratation agreement in 1959.

Under the agreement, the United States would assist Pakistan in certain circumstances if it were the victim of an assault. According to Nehru, India requested and obtained “specific assurances” from Washington that the pact “could not be used against India.” [i] This request, which was rejected by Sophistry, was to obtain assurances that the United States would not assist Pakistan under the pact if India were to commit an aggression against Pakistan or threaten Pakistan`s security.